What is Google Search Algorithm?
It is a computer program that replies your queries from the billions of web pages in order to return what it believes the best answers.

Google Panda Update:
Introduced in Feb 2011
Google Panda update is a search filter by Google and prevents those sites to rank in SERPs which have poor quality content. Panda is updated from time to time. Somehow which sites are not penalized from this update caught in its new rollout.

Top Heavy Update:
Introduced in Jan 2012
Google top heavy update prevents those websites from ranking in SERPs which are heavy with ads. Somehow which sites are not penalized from this update caught in its fresh update.

Penguin Update:
Introduced in April 2012
Google Penguin update affected only those websites which are in practicing of buying links or have a network of bad links. If any website which has low-quality links is left, it is penalized in a rollout of this update.

Pirate Update:
Introduced in Aug 2012
Google Pirate update prevents those websites from the rank in SERPs which have many copyright infringements reports, as filed through Google DMCA system. The rollout of this update caught many websites which are escaped in its earlier launch.

EMD (Exact Match Domain):
Introduced in Sep 2012
Google EMD update prevents poor quality sites to rank well in SERPs which have same search query that matches its domain name words.

Payday Update:
Introduced in June 2013
Google Payday update penalized the websites for “spammy queries” such as payday loan, pornographic and other heavily spammed queries.

Introduced in Sep 2013
Hummingbird is a new search algorithm by Google name comes from “Precise and fast”. This update is designed to better focus on the meaning behind the words. Hummingbird is paying more attention to each word in a query, ensuring that the whole query

Pigeon Update:
Introduced in July 2014
Pigeon is a new Google algorithm to provide more useful, relevant and accurate local search results to the users. It improves their distance and location ranking parameters.

Mobilegeddon Update:
Introduced in April 2015

Mobilegeddon is also known as Google Mobile friendly update. Google released a significant new mobile friendly algorithm that designed to boost website ranking on mobile search results.